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I n t r o d u c t i o n
History, Development of Manipuri Thought, The Umang Lai's, Tree Cults, Sacred Stones, Vaishnavism in Manipur...

T h e L a i s
Atiya Sidaba, Pakhangba, Sanamahi, Leimaren, The Yamjao Lais, Phungga Lairu, The Apokpa Cult, Thangjing, Marjing, Wangbaren, Koubru....



The Phayeng Copper Plates :
The 8th century Copper Plates discovered by W. Yamjao Singh, an archaeologist of Manipur, recorded  and published in 1935 as Report of Archaeological Studies in Manipur, Bulletin No 1. This discovery consists of seven sheets of Copper Plates, which together with some other fragments, were purchased from Loi villages of Phayeng. The original writing were in archaic Manipuri.

The Plan of a Meetei Yumjao :

The Plan of a Meetei Yumjao i.e., pattern of a traditional Meetei house with Front, Back and Side evaluation, drawn by M. Madhusudhan Singh. 

Loyamba Silen (Loyumba's code of duties):
Extracts from the well-known text-book on distrbution of labour, survived from the time of Layamba (1074-1122). The civilization of Manipur was finally mold into written form in the reign of King Loyyumba.

Extracts from the Puya, Khumal Puran: 
Selected texts from the literary work Khumal Puran written by Pandit Navakhendra Sharma, Bidya Ratna Rajpandit of 18th century. The original writing was in medieval Meetei.

Numit Kappa (Ballad):

English rendering from the allegorical work, Numit Kappa, which gives an account of the shooting of the Sun by a man called Khaai Nongjenba Piba. Piba suffering difficulties in serving two brother of Moirang clan, who spoken as two Suns. Piba killed one of them and overwad the other. 

The Tale of Khamb Thoibi:
In 15th century AD, Khamba, a prince of the previously routed Khuman Royal family fell in love with Thoibi - a princess of the Moirang clan The union have been to the political advantage of both Khumans and Moirangs ; but the moirang chief resisted on purely personal grounds. The result was tragic not only for the young lovers but also for the feuding tribes of Manipur. Over the ages the tale of Khamba and Thoibi has been a common legendary folk tale among the Bishnupriya Manipuri and the Meitheis living in and outside Manipur.

Boron Dahanir Ela (Rain Invoking Song, 1450-1700):
The most renowned ancient folk song in Bishnbupriya Manipuri, which has been handed down through oral tradition. This song was composed at a time, when the story of the epic became very popular. The song is addreesed to Soralel, the king of Gods.It is believed that this song is endowed with the power of calling-forth rain. Accordingly, in times of dearth, this song is sung at night in chorus by males and females with a view to calling forth rain.

Madai Soralel Ela (Madai Soralel Song, 1600-1700):
Another renowned ancient folk song in Bishnupriya Manipuri, which has been handed down through oral tradition. This song was composed during the last part of Chorai Rongba's reign, i.e., during the first part of the eighteenth century, when the Vaishnavism of Sri Caitanya entered into the society, as a result of which a cultural conflict arose therein.

Agreement made this twenty first day of September 1949 between the Governor General of India and his Highness, the Maharajah of Manipur.


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Last Revised: August 04, 2004
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Ashim Singha . All rights reserved.